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Schools For Health

References

The Challenge Before Us

Bayham J and Fenichel EP., 2020. Impact of school closures for COVID – 19 on the US health – care workforce and net mortality: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health, 5(5), pp.271-pp.278.

Environmental Law Institute., 2020. Topics in School Environmental Health: Overview of State Laws. Retrieved from: https://www.eli.org/buildings/topics-school-environmental-health-overview-state-laws.

Kneale D, O’Mara-Eves A, Rees R, and Thomas J., 2020. School closure in response to epidemic outbreaks: Systems-based logic model of downstream impacts. F1000Research, 9(352), Retrieved from: https://f1000research.com/articles/9-352.

Rundle AG, Park Y, Herbstman JB, Kinsey EW, and Wang YC., 2020. COVID-19-Related School Closings and Risk of Weight Gain Among Children. Obesity, 28(6), pp1008-pp1009.
UNESCO., 2020. COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. Retrieved from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse.

US Census Bureau., 2018. School Enrollment in the United States: October 2017 – Detailed Tables. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2017/demo/school-enrollment/2017-cps.html.

School Closures Come at a Big Cost

Baranowski T, O’Connor T, Johnston C, Hughes S, Moreno J, Chen T, Meltzer L, and Baranowski J., 2014. School Year Versus Summer Differences in Child Weight Gain: A Narrative Review. Child Obes, 10(1), pp18-pp24.

Bayham J and Fenichel EP., 2020. Impact of school closures for COVID – 19 on the US health – care workforce and net mortality: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health, 5(5), pp.271-pp.278.

Dorn E, Hancock B, Sarakatsannis J, & Viruleg E., 2020. COVID-19 and student learning in the United States: The hurt could last a lifetime. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/covid-19-andstudent-learning-in-the-united-states-the-hurt-could-last-a-lifetime.

Kuhfeld M, Soland J, Tarasawa B, Johnson A, Ruzek E, and J Liu., 2020. Projecting the potential impacts of COVID-19 school closures on academic achievement. EdWorkingPaper, 20(226). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.26300/cdrv-yw05.

Reilly J and J Kelly., 2011. Long-term Impact of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence on Morbidity and Premature Mortality in Adulthood: Systematic Review. Int J Obes (Lond), 35(7), pp891-pp898.

Rundle AG, Park Y, Herbstman JB, Kinsey EW, and Wang YC., 2020. COVID-19-Related School Closings and Risk of Weight Gain Among Children. Obesity, 28(6), pp1008-pp1009.

Singh, AS, Mulder C, Twisk JW, Van Mechelen W, & Chinapaw MJ., 2008. Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obesity reviews, 9(5), pp474-pp488.

Telama R., 2009. Tracking of Physical Activity From Childhood to Adulthood: A Review. Obes Facts, 2(3), pp187-pp95. UNESCO., 2020. COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. Retrieved from: https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse.

UNICEF. (2020 March 20). COVID-19: Children at heightened risk of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence amidst intensifying containment measures. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/covid-19-children-heightened-risk-abuse-neglectexploitation-and-violence-amidst.

Weaver, R. G., Beets, M. W., Perry, M., Hunt, E., Brazendale, K., Decker, L., Turner-McGrievy G, Pate R, Youngstedt S, Saelens B, and Maydeu-Olivares A., 2019. Changes in children’s sleep and physical activity during a 1-week versus a 3-week break from school: A natural experiment. Sleep, 42(1), zsy205.

School Can Make us Sick or Keep us Healthy

Cheek JE, Baron R, Atlas H, Wilson DL, and Crider Jr RD., 1995. Mumps outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population: Evidence for a Large-scale Vaccine Failure. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 149(7), pp774-pp778.

Chen RT, Goldbaum GM, Wassilak SGF, Markowitz LE, and Orenstein WA., 1989. An Explosive Point-Source Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population: Modes of Transmission and Risk Factors for Disease. Am J Epidemiol, 129(1), pp173–pp182.

Chen SL, Liu RC, Chen FM, Zhang XX, Zhao J, and Chen., 2016. Dynamic modelling of strategies for the control of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in schools in Changsha, China. Cambridge University Press, 145(2), pp368-pp378.

Tugwell BD, Lee LE, Gillette H, Lorber EM, Hedberg K, and Cieslak PR., 2004. Chickenpox outbreak in a highly vaccinated school population. Pediatrics, 113(3), pp455-pp459.

Wang Y, Hao L, Pan L, Xue C, Liu Q, Zhao X, and Zhu W., 2018. Age, primary symptoms, and genotype characteristics of norovirus outbreaks in Shanghai schools in 2017. Scientific Reports, 8, 15238.

Weigl JAI., 2018. Fallhäufungen von Skabies an Schulen und Einsatz von Ivermectin [Outbreaks of Scabies in Schools and Use of Ivermectin]. Gesundheitswesen, 80(04), pp360-pp364.

Xue J, Zartarian V, Tulve N, Moya J, Freeman N, Auyeung W and Beamer P., 2010. A meta-analysis of children’s object-to-mouth frequency data for estimating non-dietary ingestion exposure. Nature, 20, pp536–pp545.

Understanding COVID-19

How is COVID-19 transmitted?

Buonanno G, Stabile L, Morawska L. 2020. Estimation of airborne viral emission: Quanta emission rate of SARS-CoV-2 for infection risk assessment. Environment International, 141:105794. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105794.

Suman R, Javaid M, Haleem A, Baishya R, Bahl S, Nandan D. 2020. Sustainability of coronavirus on different surfaces. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, 10(4):386-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2020.04.020.

Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Thornburg NJ, Gerber SI, Lloyd-Smith JO, de Wit E, and Munster VJ., 2020. Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARSCoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), pp1564-pp1567.

What factors determine exposure?

Morawska L, Tang JW, Bahnfleth W, Bluyssen PM, Boerstra A, Buonanno G, Cao J, Dancer S, Floto A, Franchimon F, Haworth C, Hogeling J, Isaxon C, Jimenez JL, Kurnitski J, Li Y, Loomans M, Marks G, Marr LC, Mazzarella L, and Yao M., 2020. How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised? Environment International, 142, 105832.

Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera VL, Morwitzer MJ, Creager HM, Santarpia GW, Crown KK, Brett-Major DM, Schnaubelt ER, Broadhurst MJ, Lawler JV, Reid SP, and Lowe JJ. 2020. Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care. Scientific Reports, 10:12732. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69286-3.

What age groups are most susceptible to COVID-19?

Davies NG, Klepac P, Liu Y, Prem K, Jit M, CMMID COVID-19 working group, Eggo RM. 2020. Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics. Nature Medicine, 26:1205-1211. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0962-9.

Dattner I, Goldberg Y, Katriel G, Yaari R, Gal N, Miron Y, Ziv A, Sheffer R, Hamo Y, Huppert A. 2020. The role of children in the spread of COVID-19: Using household data from Bnei Brak, Israel, to estimate the relative susceptibility and infectivity of children. medRxiv. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.03.20121145.

Goldstein E, Lipsitch M, Cevik M. 2020. On the effect of age on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households, schools and the community. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa691. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa691.

Jing QL, Liu MJ, Zhang ZB, Fang LQ, Yuan J, Zhang AR, Dean NE, Luo L, Ma MM, Longini I, Kenah E, Lu Y, Ma Y, Jalali N, Yang ZC, Yang Y. 2020. Household secondary attack rate of COVID-19 and associated determinants in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(10):1141-1150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30471-0.

Luo L, Liu D, Liao X, Wu X, Jing Q, Zheng J, Liu F, Yang S, Bi H, Li Z, Liu J, Song W, Zhu W, Wang Z, Zhang X, Huang Q, Chen P, Liu H, Cheng X, Cai M, Yang P, Yang X, Han Z, Tang J, Ma Y, Mao C. 2020. “Contact settings and risk for transmission in 3410 close contacts of patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China. Annals of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-2671.

Somekh E, Gleyzer A, Heller E, Lopian M, Kashani-Ligumski L, Czeiger S, Schindler Y, Lessing JB, & Stein M., 2020. The role of children in the dynamics of intra family coronavirus 2019 spread in densely populated area. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1097/inf.0000000000002783.

Van der Hoek W, Backer JA, Bodewes R, Friesema I, Meijer A, Pijnacker R, Reukers DFM, Reusken C, Roof I, Rotors N, te Wierik MJM, van Gageldonk-Lafeber AB, Waegemaekers CHFM, and van den Hof S., 2020. De rol van kinderen in de transmissie van SARS-CoV-2. Netherlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde, 164, D5140.

Viner RM, Mytton OT, Bonell C, Melendez-Torres GJ, Ward J, Hudson L, Waddington C, Thomas J, Russell S, van der Klis F, Koirala A, Ladhani S, Panovska-Griffiths J, Davies NG, Booy R, Eggo RM. 2020. Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4573.

Zhang J, Litvinova M, Liang Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Zhao S, Wu Q, Merler S, Viboud C, Vespignani A, Ajelli M, Yu H. 2020. Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science, 368:1481-1486. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8001.

What are the symptoms and outcomes for kids with COVID-19?

Ahmed M, Advani S, Moreira A, Zoretic S, Martinez J, Chorath K, Acosta S, Naqvi R, Burmeister-Morton F, Burmeister F, Tarriela A, Petershack M, Evans M, Hoang A, Rajasekaran K, Ahuja S, Moreira A. 2020. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a systematic review. EClinicalMedicine, 26:100527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100527.

Choi SH, Kim HW, Kang JM, Kim DH, Cho EY. 2020. Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 63(4):125-132. https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.00535.

Cruz A and Zeichner S., 2020. COVID-19 in Children: Initial Characterization of the Pediatric Disease. Pediatrics, 145(6). Retrieved form: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0834.

Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z, and Tong S., 2020. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics, 145(6).

Hagmann SHF., 2020. COVID-19 in children: More than meets the eye. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 34, 101649.

Hauser A, Counotte MJ, Margossian CC, Konstantinoudis G, Low N, Althaus CL, Riou J. 2020. Estimation of SARS-CoV-2 mortality during the early stages of an epidemic: a modelling study in Hubei, China and six regions in Europe. PLoS Medicine, 17(7): e1003189. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003189.

Mannheim J, Gretsch S, Layden JE, Fricchione MJ. 2020. Characteristics of hospitalized pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 cases in Chicago, Illinois, March-April 2020. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa070.

Perez-Saez J, Lauer SA, Kaiser L, Regard S, Delaporte E, Guessous I, Stringhini S, Azman AS. 2020. Serology-informed estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality risk in Geneva, Switzerland. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30584-3.

Riphagen S, Gomez X, Gonzalez-Martinez C, Wilkinson N, and Theocharis P., 2020. Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet, 395(10237), pp1607-pp1608.

Rossen LM, Branum AM, Ahmad FB, Sutton P, Anderson RN. 2020. Excess deaths associated with COVID-19, by age and race and ethnicity – United States, January 26-October 3, 2020. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69:1522-1527. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6942e2.

Yu CCW, Li AM, So RCH, McManus A, Ng PC, Chu W, Chan D, Cheng F, Chiu WK, Leung CW, Yau YS, Mo KW, Wong EMC, Cheung AYK, Leung TF, Sung RYT, & Fok TF., 2006. Longer term follow up of aerobic capacity in children affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Thorax, 61, pp240-pp246.

How long does it take for symptoms to appear?

Backer JA, Don Klinkenberg D, and Wallinga J., 2020. The incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections among travellers from Wuhan, China. Euro Surveill, 25(5).

She J, Liu L, Liu W. 2020. COVID-19 epidemic: disease characteristics in children. Journal of Medical Virology. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25807.

Zhu Y, Bloxham CJ, Hulme KD, Sinclair JE, Tong ZWM, Steele LE, Noye EC, Lu J, Chew KY, Pickering J, Gilks C, Bowen AC, and Short KR., 2020. Children are unlikely to have been the primary source of household SARS-CoV-2 infections. medRxiv. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.26.20044826.

When can someone transmit COVID-19?

Huang R, Xia J, Chen Y, Shan C, and Wu C., 2020. A family cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infection involving 11 patients in Nanjing, China. Lancet Infect Dis, 20(5), pp534-pp535.

Van Kampen JJA, van de Vijver DAMC, Fraaij PLA, Haagmans BL, Lamers MM, Okba N, van den Akker JPC, Endeman H, Gommers DAMPJ, Cornelissen JJ, Hoek RAS, van der Eerden MM, Hesselink DA, Metselaar HJ, Verbon A, de Steenwinkel JEM, Aron GI, van Gorp ECM, van Boheemen S, and van der Eijk AA., 2020. Shedding of infectious virus in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): duration and key determinants. medRxiv. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.08.20125310.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2020, May 27. Clinical management of COVID-19. WHO reference number: WHO/2019-nCoV/clinical/2020.5. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/clinical-management-of-covid-19. Wan K, Chen J, Lu C, Dong L, Wu Z, Zhang L. 2020. When will the battle against coronavirus end in Wuhan: a SEIR modeling analysis.

Journal of Global Health, 10(1):011002. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.011002.

Zhang J, Litvinova M, Liang Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Zhao S, Wu Q, Merler S, Viboud C, Vespignani A, Ajelli M, Yu H. 2020. Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science, 368:1481-1486. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8001.

What do we know about kids spreading COVID-19?

Bi Q, Wu Y, Mei S, Ye C, Zou X, Zhang Z, Liu X, Wei L, Truelove SA, Zhang T, Gao W, Cheng C, Tang X, Wu X, Wu Y, Sun B, Huang S, Sun Y, Zhang J, Ma T, Lessler J, and Feng T. 2020. Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(8):911-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30287-5.

Cai J, Xu J, Lin D, Yang Z, Xu L, Qu Z, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Jia R, Liu P, Wang X, Ge Y, Xia A, Tian H, Chang H, Wang C, Li J, Wang J, Zeng M. 2020. A case series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(6):1547-1551. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa198.

Cauchemez S, Valleron AJ, Boelle PY, Flahault A, Ferguson NM., 2008. Estimating the impact of school closure on influenza transmission from Sentinel Data. Nature, 452, pp750-pp754.

Cruz A and Zeichner S., 2020. COVID-19 in Children: Initial Characterization of the Pediatric Disease. Pediatrics, 145(6). Retrieved form: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0834.

Choi S, Kim HW, Kang J, Kim DH, and Cho EY. 2020. Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children. Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics, 63(4):125-132. https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.00535.

Danis K, Epaulard O, Benet T, Gaymard A, Campoy S, Botelho-Nevers E, Bouscambert-Duchamp M, Spaccaferri G, Ader F, Mailles A, Boudalaa Z, Tolsma V, Berra J, Vaux S, Forestier E, Landelle C, Fougere E, Thabuis A, Berthelot P, Veil R, Levy-Bruhl D, Chidiac C, Lina B, Coignard B, Saura C. 2020. Cluster of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the French Alps, February 2020. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(15):825-832. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa424.

Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z and Tong S., 2020. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics. 145(6).

Heavy L, Casey G, Kelly C, Kelly D, and McDarby G., 2020. No evidence of secondary transmission of COVID-19 from children attending school in Ireland, 2020. Euro Surveill; 25(21): 2000903.

Jing QL, Liu MJ, Yuan J, Zhang ZB, Zhang AR, Dean NE, Luo L, Ma M, Longini I, Kenah E, Lu Y, Ma Y, Jalali N, Fang LQ, Yang ZC, Yang Y., 2020. Household Secondary Attack Rate ofCOVID-19 and Associated Determinants. medRxiv. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.11.20056010

Levinson M, Cevik M, Lipsitch M. 2020. Reopening primary schools during the pandemic. The New England Journal of Medicine, 383(10):981-985. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMms2024920.

Ma X, Su L, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Gai Z, Zhang Z., 2020. Do children need a longer time to shed SARS-CoV-2 in stool than adults? J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 53(3): 373-376.

Mannheim J, Gretsch S, Layden JE, Fricchione MJ. 2020. Characteristics of hospitalized pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 cases in Chicago, Illinois, March-April 2020. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa070.

Silverberg S and Sauve L., 2020. Caring for Children with COVID-19. British Columbia Ministry of Health. Retrieved from: http:// www.bccdc.ca/Health-Professionals-Site/Documents/Caring-for-children.pdf.

Van der Hoek W, Backer JA, Bodewes R, Friesema I, Meijer A, Pijnacker R, Reukers DFM, Reusken C, Roof I, Rotors N, te Wierik MJM, van Gageldonk-Lafeber AB, Waegemaekers CHFM, and van den Hof S., 2020. De rol van kinderen in de transmissie van SARS-CoV-2. Netherlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde, 164, D5140.

Viner RM, Mytton OT, Bonell C, Melendez-Torres GJ, Ward J, Hudson L, Waddington C, Thomas J, Russell S, van der Klis F, Koirala A, Ladhani S, Panovska-Griffiths J, Davies NG, Booy R, Eggo RM. 2020. Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents compared with adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4573.

Xing YH, Ni W, Wu Q,. 2020. Prolonged viral shedding in feces of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 53(3), pp473-pp480.

Xu, Y., Li, X., Zhu, B, Liang H, Fang C, Gong Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhao D, Shen J, Zhang H, Liu H, Xia H, Tang J, Zhang K and Gong S, 2020. Characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential evidence for persistent fecal viral shedding. Nat Med, 26, pp502–pp505.

Xue J, Zartarian V, Tulve N, Moya J, Freeman N, Auyeung W and Beamer P., 2010. A meta-analysis of children’s object-to-mouth frequency data for estimating non-dietary ingestion exposure. Nature, 20, pp536–pp545.

Zhang J, Litvinova M, Liang Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Zhao S, Wu Q, Merler S, Viboud C, Vespignani A, Ajelli M, Yu H. 2020. Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science, 368:1481-1486. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8001.

Zhu Y, Bloxham CJ, Hulme KD, Sinclair JE, Tong ZWM, Steele LE, Noye EC, Lu J, Chew KY, Pickering J, Gilks C, Bowen AC, and Short KR., 2020. Children are unlikely to have been the primary source of household SARS-CoV-2 infections. medRxiv. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.26.20044826.

Healthy Classrooms

CDC. 2020, May 17. Hand Hygiene Recommendations: Guidance for Healthcare Providers about Hand Hygiene and COVID-19. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/hand-hygiene.html.

Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schunemann HJ, COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) Study Authors. 2020. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 395(10242): 1973-1987. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9.

Konda A, Prakash A, Moss GA, Schmoldt M, Grant GD, and Guha S, 2020. Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. ACS Nano, 14(5), pp6339–pp6347.

Kratzel A, Todt D, V’kovski P, Steiner S, Gultom M, Thao TTN, Ebert N, Holwerda M, Steinmann J, Niemeyer D, Dijkman R, Kampf G, Drosten C, Steinmann E, Thiel V, and Pfaender S., 2020. Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 by WHO-Recommended Hand Rub Formulations and Alcohols. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(7). Advance online publication. DOI:10.3201/eid2607.200915.

WHO. (2020b June 5). Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/publicationsdetail-redirect/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-thenovel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak.

Healthy Buildings

ASHRAE, 2019. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2019: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia.

ASHRAE, April 2020. Position Document on Infectious Aerosols. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Retrieved from https://www.ashrae.org/file%20library/about/position%20documents/pd_infectiousaerosols_2020.pdf 60

ASHRAE. ASHRAE Epidemic Task Force: Filtration & Disinfection, 2020. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Retrieved from https://www.ashrae.org/file%20library/technical%20resources/covid-19/ashrae-filtration_disinfection-c19-guidance.pdf.

ASHRAE. ASHRAE Epidemic Task Force: Schools & Universities, 2020. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Retrieved from https://www.ashrae.org/file%20library/technical%20resources/covid-19/ashrae-reopeningschools.pdf.

Chen C, Zhao B, Cui W, Dong L, An N, Ouyang X, 2010. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient’s mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics. J. R. Soc. Interface. 7, pp1105–pp1118.

Foarde K, 1999. Development of a Method for Measuring Single-Pass Bioaerosol Removal Efficiencies of a Room Air Cleaner. Aerosol Science and Technology, 30:2, pp223-pp234. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/027868299304804.

Knowlton SD, Boles CL, Perencevich EN, Diekema DJ, Nonnenmann MW, and CDC Epicenters Program, 2018. Bioaerosol concentrations generated from toilet flushing in a hospital-based patient care setting. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(16).

Kujundzic E, Matalkah F, Howard C, Hernandez M and Miller S, 2006. UV Air Cleaners and Upper-Room Air Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Controlling Airborne Bacteria and Fungal Spores, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 3(10), pp536-pp546.

Liu Y, Ning Z, Chen Y, Guo M, Liu Y, Gali NK, Sun L, Duan Y, Cai J, Westerdahl D, Liu X, Xu K, Ho K, Kan H, Fu Q, Lan K, 2020. Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature. Advance online publication. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2271-3.

Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MSY, and Marimuthu K., 2020. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(16), pp1610-pp1612.

Persily A, Ng L, May 2020. Ventilation Impacts on Indoor Aerosol Transport and Current HVAC Recommendations for Re-Opening Buildings. ISIAQ Webinar Series: Spread of Infectious Diseases in Indoor Environments.

REHVA, April 2020. REHVA COVID-19 Guidance Document, April 3, 2020. The Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Associations. Retrieved from https://www.rehva.eu/activities/covid-19-guidance.

Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera V, Morwitzer MJ, Creager H, Santarpia GW, Crown KK, Brett-Major DM, Schnaubelt E, Broadhurst MJ, Lawler JV, Reid SP, and Lowe JJ., 2020. Transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. medRxiv. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.23.20039446.

Van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, Tamin A, Harcourt JL, Thornburg NJ, Gerber SI, Lloyd-Smith JO, de Wit E, and Munster VJ., 2020. Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARSCoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), pp1564-pp1567.

Healthy Policies

CDC. (2020, June 5). Public Health Guidance for Community-Related Exposure. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/public-health-recommendations.html.

CDC. 2020, October 21. Protect yourself when using transportation: public transit, rideshares and taxis, micro-mobility devices, and personal vehicles. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/using-transportation.html.

CDC. 2020, October 21. Travel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html.

Healthy Schedules

Hanage W. 2020, August 14. ‘Hybrid’ school plans sound safe, but they’re the riskiest option we have. The Washington Post.

Healthy Activities

Brown LL.,2012. The Benefits of Music Education. PBS KIDS for Parents. Retrieved from: https://www.pbs.org/parents/thrive/thebenefits-of-music-education.

Bryant S., 2014. How Children Benefit from Music Education in Schools. NAMM Foundation. Retrieved from: https://www.nammfoundation.org/articles/2014-06-09/how-children-benefit-music-education-schools.

Nelson TF, Stovitz SD, Thomas M, LaVoi NM, Bauer KW, Neumark-Sztainer D., 2011. Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary. Current sports medicine reports, 10(6), 360.

Schuit M, Gardner S, Wood S, Bower K, Williams G, Freeburger D, and Dabisch P., 2020. The Influence of Simulated Sunlight on the Inactivation of Influenza Virus in Aerosols. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 221(3), pp372–pp378.

SHAPE America, 2013. National Standards for K-12 Physical Education. SHAPE America – Society of Health and Physical Educators. Retrieved from: https://www.shapeamerica.org.

Telama R, Yang X, Hirvensalo M, Raitakari O, 2006. Participation in organized youth sport as a predictor of adult physical activity: a 21-year longitudinal study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 18(1), pp76-pp88.

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